In order to make a diagnosis of a psychological illness, clinicians use a classification system, also known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM lists a variety of disorders, including mental illness and personality disorders, and includes standardized criteria for diagnosis. This manual also lists treatments and other treatment options for each disorder.
Psychological illnesses can be severe and chronic, and affect millions of people worldwide. They are characterized by distortions in perception, emotion, sense of self, and behavior. They often begin during adolescence or early adulthood, and they can cause significant difficulties in a person’s life. Symptoms of psychological illness can often be controlled with the help of medication or therapy.
The DSM includes a wide variety of conditions, including motor and neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as psychotic disorders. Some of these disorders may have a purely psychological cause, such as depression. Other disorders, such as autism, are considered to be mental conditions. However, they may have many medical implications, such as causing physical symptoms.
Psychological illness affects every aspect of a person’s life. It can affect self-esteem, relationships, and ability to function in daily life. An estimated 1 in 5 adults suffers from a mental illness. The effects can be temporary, but may last for a long time. In addition, many people have more than one mental disorder at any given time.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an example of a psychological illness that often affects individuals. This disorder involves repeated actions that interfere with daily activities and are often not pleasurable. Moreover, people suffering from OCD often experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts, and often perform ritualistic behaviors to relieve these thoughts.
Despite the large prevalence of psychological illness, it is still possible to treat it. The first step is an accurate diagnosis. This will determine the best course of treatment, whether it involves pharmaceutical intervention or psychotherapy with a licensed therapist. In most cases, the right treatment options will depend on the type of psychological illness that is affecting the patient.
A diagnosis of psychological illness requires a thorough evaluation of a person’s overall mental health. During a mental health consultation, a doctor will evaluate his or her appearance, behavior, and self-reported symptoms. He or she will also ask questions about the person’s mental history and present life circumstances. A physical examination may also be conducted, if there are underlying physical illnesses.
Depression affects about 60 million people in the world. It affects people of all ages, including teenagers. About 6.7 percent of adults will suffer from depression at some point in their lives. The symptoms of this disorder include decreased energy, depressed mood, and sleep disturbance. Some individuals may even experience suicidal ideation. However, this condition is usually treatable.
In many countries, primary care serves as the first level of mental health care. The aim of primary care is to provide ongoing treatment for mild to moderate mental illnesses. In France, this treatment includes ambulatory clinics, home visits, and community outreach. In Norway, multidisciplinary mental health teams are funded by local governments. In the United States, team-based treatment models are available in some communities, though costs and access barriers remain a challenge.