Psychiatric illness is a group of disorders that affect the way a person thinks, feels, and functions. These illnesses are often treated with medicine and therapy. However, there is still no proven cure. In the United States, one in five people will suffer from a mental illness in their lifetime.
Psychiatric illness can be classified according to the severity of symptoms. Some are mild and last a short time, while others are chronic and last for a long time. A depressive episode can last for a month or more, with the condition affecting the patient’s energy, hope, and feelings of well-being. The most common types of psychological illness are anxiety and depression.
Anxiety is the most common type of mental disorder, affecting over 30 percent of all mental illness diagnoses in the U.S. It is characterized by feelings of extreme fear and anxiety. Some of the most common disorders include generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Anxiety may be caused by an environment that causes feelings of fear, such as being around people who are aggressive or have poor social skills.
Some of the more serious psychological illnesses are schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They are also known as psychotic disorders. These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations, as well as a variety of other symptoms. These disorders are usually diagnosed after a patient experiences a significant stressor, such as a traumatic event. A brief psychotic episode lasts less than a week, and is a response to intense stress.
Some psychological illnesses are caused by a combination of environmental, social, and genetic factors. These factors can include trauma, abuse, and neglect. They can also be a result of socioeconomic inequality and a lack of social cohesion. These factors can result in psychological co-morbidities, which add to the cost of care.
Some of the most common diagnoses are obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression. Cognitive behaviors such as depression are treatable with medication and therapy. Anxiety can be treated with anti-anxiety drugs or hypnotics. Other treatments for depression include cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. The goal of these therapies is to modify maladaptive thought patterns and behaviors.
Biological psychiatry is a school of psychiatry that is based on biomedical research. Biological psychiatry focuses on the physiology and neuroscience of mental disorders. It is primarily based on a biomedical model, but has also incorporated psychological factors. The model involves the belief that disorders are a product of developmental vulnerabilities.
The biopsychosocial model is the primary paradigm of mainstream Western psychiatry. It combines psychological and social factors to understand the genesis of disorders. It has been shown that social factors, such as traumatic events and employment problems, are associated with both the development and persistence of some disorders. It is believed that these factors affect the course and treatment of these conditions.
In addition to biologically derived classifications, the field of psychiatry also uses a pluralistic mix of theoretical models to explain the emergence and persistence of mental disorders. A number of approaches have been proposed, including dimensional, continuum, and spectrum models. Some of these models utilize a dichotomous symptom profile, while others incorporate both a dimensional and a continuum model.