Psychiatric disorders are diseases that affect the way people think, feel, and act. They can be diagnosed by a mental health professional. People with mental illness can be treated to some degree through medicine, therapy, and other means. Symptoms may be caused by external factors or may be caused by a person’s personality. Some mental disorders may be short-lived and others may persist for a long time. There are several factors that determine the likelihood of a person developing a mental disorder, including the social environment, personal traits, and the mental disorder itself.
A “nervous breakdown” is a pseudo-medical term that describes a large number of stressful feelings. Some people with mental disorders may have a “nervous breakdown” for a brief period of time. However, the term is also used to describe a person who suffers from an anxiety disorder. A depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks in which the person feels hopeless and does not enjoy life. The feelings of despair, hopelessness, and lack of energy may be accompanied by thoughts of death.
Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychological illness. These include social phobias, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychotic disorders are characterized by hallucinations and delusions. Some people with mental disorders may require treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
Psychological illness is categorized into developmental disorders (infants and children) and neurodevelopmental disorders (adults and adolescents). Developmental disorders begin in childhood and include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Other developmental disorders include conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and substance use disorders.
Various dimensional models have been developed, including the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology and the Recovery Approach. Some models include a dichotomous symptom profile that divides people with abnormal symptoms from those with normal symptoms. Other models are based on non-categorical or continuum models. In the continuum model, symptoms are classified according to a grouping of symptoms, not based on a specific disorder.
In the past, psychiatric diagnoses were based on a number of factors. One of the earlier somatogenic theories was humorism. Humorists believed that mental disorders were caused by imbalances of four fluids. Another theory was aromatherapy. Humorists also used bloodletting to correct blood imbalances.
During the 18th century, the moral treatment movement began. This movement was a response to the harsh care received in asylums. Many people were treated like wild animals. In the 1930s, the endocrinology field began to explore the causes of stress. It was found that many people had anxiety and depression.
In the 1990s, the number of mental illness diagnoses increased significantly. The number of “official” diagnoses was expanded and the number of treatment methods expanded. SSRI-type antidepressants became the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world. Many mental health professionals were skeptical of the diagnosis, claiming that it is spurious. Others argued that there were many cases of DID, so the diagnosis was justified.
Depression is a common mental illness that can be treated with medicine and therapy. There is no cure, but recent advances have made depression treatable to a high degree.