Psychological illness classification systems started as practical attempts to define similarities and differences among patient populations. These are now used in medical research as guidelines. The ICD-10 system preserves parallel categories from the DSM-IV, but the descriptions often differ. Rather than a checklist approach, it identifies the major characteristics of each disorder. There are several main groups: anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorders, and mood disorders. Each category is assigned a letter based on its severity and symptomatology.
Several different schools of psychotherapy are used in treating different types of psychological illness. Cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectic behavior therapy, and family therapy are some of the most common types of psychotherapy. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on the interpersonal relationships and conflicts. While psychoanalysis has long dominated the field, modern approaches have shifted to include family and systemic therapy, which address a patient’s network of important others. In many ways, each form has its merits, but each has its own unique set of benefits and drawbacks.
Bipolar disorder is another common form of psychosis. It occurs when a person experiences manic and depressive episodes, with alternating periods of high and low mood. About 60 million people worldwide suffer from bipolar disorder. Manic episodes are characterized by hyperactivity, an inflated sense of self-esteem, and the inability to sleep. Hypomania is less severe than mania. Depressive episodes are marked by extreme sadness and lack of energy. Treatment for bipolar disorder focuses on addressing the symptoms and providing psychosocial support.
The most commonly known psychological illnesses are: anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder. These disorders are more common than most people realize. While anxiety disorders are generally recognized as psychological illnesses, they differ greatly in their treatment. In some cases, they are misdiagnosed. The term “psychological illness” is used to describe any mental condition that affects the individual’s ability to function normally. In some cases, a person has symptoms of depression and/or bipolar disorder, but it does not mean that the person is suffering from a mental illness.
The definition of a psychological disorder varies from culture to culture. Many people find certain behaviors incomprehensible or bizarre, and they are often highly debatable. The process of medicalizing psychological problems is known as pathologization. Psychologists have come to view psychological illness as a symptom of human weakness. They see it as an unfortunate part of our culture. It is a symptom of a greater problem than depression, and the result of a culture’s cultural bias is a dysfunctional society.
Other forms of psychological illness include addictions, mood disorders, and anxiety. Addiction to alcohol, drugs, and tobacco fall under the substance abuse category in the DSM. Some people suffer from addictions to these substances and develop a tolerance to their effects. In some cases, withdrawal symptoms occur when a person suddenly reduces or completely eliminates their intake. Another type of psychological disorder is dissociative identity disorder. People with this disorder have severe disruptions in their sense of self. Previously known as multiple personality disorder, it involves inability to differentiate between real and imaginary experiences.