A person who suffers from a psychological illness experiences significant disturbances in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. These disturbances are self-defeating, unusual, and troubling to others. The symptoms of psychological illness can vary from mild to severe. A person with a mental illness may spend hours washing themselves or be preoccupied with germs, and this could be a sign of an underlying condition. The symptoms of psychological illness can also affect the person’s ability to work, socialize, or do any of the activities they enjoy.
The DSM-5 lists various categories of mental disorders and provides standardized criteria for diagnosis. Various other manuals, including the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, offer alternative theoretical approaches. In general, though, mental disorders are classified separately from other physical conditions, intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities. This separation has helped modernize the field. There are a variety of psychotherapies for psychological illnesses, each focusing on a different aspect of mental health.
Traditionally, the treatment of psychological illness has disproportionately affected men. The dominant medical model of mental illness privileges strong providers, while most physicians were male and under the same constraints. Because of these constraints, many men experience psychiatric disorders that women do not. Even though women have a higher rate of suicide than men, 75 percent of all suicides are committed by men. The difference is largely due to cultural, not genetic, factors.
The term ‘psychotic illness’ was coined by R. E. Kendell, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Edinburgh. He noted that the term depression is a common theme among people. His bio-psychosocial approach to defining psychological illness emphasized the reaction types of individuals. Meyer’s bio-psychosocial approach framed psychological symptoms as’reaction types.’ Emil Kraepelin, a leading psychoanalyst, saw psychological symptoms as a disease.
In the early 20th century, the mental hygiene movement gained prominence, and both social work and clinical psychology became professional disciplines. In addition, World War I led to an increase in shell shock and depression. This led to the creation of a new psychiatric manual and the development of systems for collecting statistics. The first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was published after the war. Later, an international classification of diseases developed a section for psychological disorders. In the 1930s, the philosopher Giorgio Antonucci questioned the foundation of psychoanalysis and behaviourism and dismantled two psychiatric institutions in Imola, Italy.
The symptoms of psychological illness vary, and it may be due to genetics, environmental factors, or even substance abuse. Psychological disorders are not curable, but treatment is available for them. The American Psychological Association has produced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) since 1952. In the United States, 264 million people suffer from depression. Approximately 50 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorder, 45 million from dementia, and 20 million from schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders.
Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the two most common emotional disorders among COVID-19 survivors. The researchers found enough studies to warrant the meta-analysis, and the two studies were similar. In addition to depression and PTSD, they noted lower prevalence during COVID-19 than in SARS. However, both were significantly higher than in MERS and COVID-19. Thus, the COVID-19 outbreak has a significant impact on the general population.