Psychiatric illness is a condition that has an impact on the emotions and cognition of individuals. People who suffer from mental illness may require a psychiatric hospital or other type of treatment. Some people need social support, while others need more intensive treatment. In many cases, therapy is the main treatment option.
Different types of psychiatric illness are classified as anxiety disorders, depression, psychotic disorders, psychosocial disorders and substance use disorders. Some of these diagnoses are more serious than previously thought. The DSM-5, produced by the American Psychological Association, provides descriptions of each disorder. There are also alternative theoretical classification schemes, such as the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual.
Psychological illnesses are caused by a combination of factors, including neurotransmitters in the brain. These neurotransmitters carry signals from the nerve receptors to other parts of the brain. Impaired neurotransmitter networks can cause emotional disorders. Other factors can include genetics, environment, and a person’s social environment. These factors may influence the course of the illness, and a person’s risk of developing a mental illness.
Anxiety disorders are common, and include social anxiety and panic disorders. Other common diagnoses include obsessive-compulsive disorder and specific phobias. People with these disorders experience extreme fears and anxiety, which interfere with their ability to function normally. They also may experience paraphilia, which is a form of sexual behavior that can be harmful to the person or others.
Psychotic disorders are also common, and include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. They may involve extreme thoughts or feelings of hopelessness and death. Other symptoms of these disorders include lack of energy and feelings of being depressed. Some people who suffer from these disorders may experience a depressive episode, which lasts for more than two weeks.
Other types of psychiatric illness include developmental disorders, which are disorders that begin during childhood. These diagnoses include Asperger’s Syndrome and ADHD. Developmental disorders are often characterized by social impairment, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, and communication difficulties. Cognitive disorders include major neurocognitive disorder, delirium, oppositional defiant disorder and mild neurocognitive disorder.
Psychosocial disorders are often related to the social environment, including neglect, abuse, trauma, and bullying. These conditions can affect an individual’s ability to function in the workplace. Other factors that may contribute to psychological illness include genetics, environmental exposures before birth, and blood relatives. Psychotic disorders are often treated with drugs and therapy. Other treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy and family therapy.
Mental illnesses are more common than previously thought, and people can be diagnosed and treated to a high degree. The DSM-5 includes a variety of treatments for mental illnesses. Some of these treatments are available through community mental health services, while others may require a psychiatric facility. People with severe or difficult-to-treat mental illnesses may need to go to a psychiatric hospital for treatment. Those with more severe illnesses may also need social support or education on how to cope with their condition.
Substance use disorders are associated with addiction to alcohol or drugs. These disorders may also be caused by a pattern of compulsive use. Some of the most common drugs prescribed include benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. When these drugs are taken repeatedly, a tolerance develops and withdrawal symptoms may appear.